Gompers did not engage in politics or, like other union leaders, defended utopian ideas, but focused on concrete economic benefits for AFL members. The AFL generally believed that most workers would remain workers for the rest of their lives, trying to create a sense of pride in their skills and jobs. Instead of opening up its membership to all, the AFL allowed only skilled workers to join the union. The association worked on things such as employer liability, anti-mine laws, favourable trade agreements, closed businesses (businesses that only union members could hire), higher wages and, most importantly, a normal eight-hour workday. As the AFL has focused on a number of fundamental objectives, it has sometimes been referred to as a “bread and butter” union. Dunn and Gennard found 111 British redundancies when a closed store was introduced, 325 people were involved,:125, and they stated: “While supporters of the closed store can argue that it is estimated that at least 325 layoffs are a relatively small number of closed shops compared to the total population, critics would consider this figure to be substantial, arguing that dismissal is too much.” :126 With regard to the store closed before entry, they stated: “Its raison d`être is to exclude people from jobs by denying them union membership.” :132 All forms of closed trade in the United Kingdom are illegal after the introduction of the Employment Act in 1990. They were further reduced under Section 137 (1) (a) of the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (approximately 52) , which was passed at the time by the Conservative government. The then-opposition Labour Party had supported closed operations until December 1989, when it abandoned the policy in accordance with EU law.  Equity was one of the last unions in the United Kingdom to have, until the 1990 act, a store closed before entry.
 Construction unions and unions in other sectors with similar employment patterns have faced a ban on closed stores by banning closed stores using exclusive rental buildings as a means of controlling labour supply. Such exclusive rental halls do not require, strictly and formally, union affiliation as a condition of employment, but they do so in practice, because a worker who wishes to be sent to work by the union`s hiring room must pay union dues or an equivalent fee for the hiring room. If the rental hall is operated indiscriminately and adheres to clearly stated promotion and shipping standards, it is legal. The term “Open Shop” is also used in the same way in [Canada], most often for contractors who have at least a partially independent workforce. Canadians enjoy the freedom guaranteed by the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which intrinsically includes the right not to bind.  As labour law is a provincial jurisdiction in Canada, laws vary from province to province. There are, however, a few things in common. Despite opposition from open-shop entrepreneurs, the Ontario Liberal government recently reintroduced the card-based certification system, which applied for most of the post-World War II period.
Card certification has only been reintroduced for the construction industry. It allows employees to certify an exclusive partner on the basis of a membership sometimes referred to as a “majority declaration.” Some observers say that this system may be misled by business representatives. Others argue that it overcomes the natural advantage that employers have over their employees, unlike union training.  U.S. labor law prohibits the store in its extreme form: it prohibits private sector employers from refusing to hire because they are unionized, just as it prevents discrimination against workers who do not want unions.  The Taft-Hartley Act prohibited the store closed in the United States in 1947.